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Buch (Monographie) zugänglich unter
URN: urn:nbn:de:bsz:291-scidok-4827
URL: http://scidok.sulb.uni-saarland.de/volltexte/2005/482/


Processes constitute our complex reality : a theoretical investigation. - 2. edition

Fliedner, Dietrich

Quelle: (2005) To read the third edition of this document, have a look at http://scidok.sulb.uni-saarland.de/volltexte/2010/3384/
pdf-Format:
Dokument 1.pdf (5.779 KB) Dokument 2.pdf (4.692 KB) Dokument 3.pdf (6.781 KB)
Dokument 4.pdf (9.130 KB) Dokument 5.pdf (1.854 KB)

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SWD-Schlagwörter: Emergenz , Selbstorganisation , Autopoiese , Population
Freie Schlagwörter (Englisch): emergence , self-organisation , complexitiy level , bonding level , route diagram
Institut: Fachrichtung 5.4 - Geographie
DDC-Sachgruppe: Geografie, Reisen
Dokumentart: Buch (Monographie)
Sprache: Englisch
Erstellungsjahr: 2005
Publikationsdatum: 15.11.2005
Bemerkung: Please note: A newer version of this document is available here: http://scidok.sulb.uni-saarland.de/volltexte/2010/3384/

Suppl. 1: Three Problems of the Theoretical Physics as Seen by a Geographer. An Essay http://scidok.sulb.uni-saarland.de/volltexte/2007/993/
Suppl. 2: Geographic Science and the Development of its Aims and Methods. An Essay http://scidok.sulb.uni-saarland.de/volltexte/2007/1035/

Kurzfassung auf Englisch: 1. The problem: The decisive question for this treatise is as follows: why does our reality not end in chaos in spite of increasing multiplicity in the course of cosmic, biotic and cultural evolution, but that ordering structures and spaces are created?
A number of attempts have been made to approach these problems. But a certain degree of disillusionment has now set in. Certain patterns are apparent, but no organised forms, such as are characteristic of our life and familiar from our environment.
The solution of this problem requires a new concept. The aim of this book is to present a theory dealing with this topic. In this concept, the process is the main subject of our considerations ("process-based theory of complexity" or "process theory" for short).
The social world is the medium for study; the structured process is the path of inquiry; the intertwining of the flows of information and energy is the aim of the study; the mesocosmos forms the framework for study.
2. The basic process: Firstly we must attempt to reduce the observable processes and complex structures to the essentials necessary for our purposes. We arrive at the level of cognition of the flow of information and energy:
Here, a sequence of 4 stages is recognisable: (1) The stimulus (information or energy from the environment) is introduced into the system: "input"; (2) the system must acccept the stimulus: "acceptance"; (3) the stimulus is reversed in direction: "redirection"; (4) the stimulus is again transferred to the environment: "output".
This sequence of 4 stages forms the basic unit of any process structure ("basic process"). In more complex systems, the basic processes join up to form sequences of different kinds. In this way, the basic process can be comprehended as a module affecting the entire process and system-related structure of reality.

3. The complexity levels: The course of the processes follows only a few rules: a division into 4 stages (corresponding to the basic process), a symmetrical arrangement (1-2-3-4/4-3-2-1) of the process stages, a circular course of the process, and an internal hierarchy (control). 6 levels of complexity can be distinguished through the internal structure of the processes (systems) and their control:
1. Reality is constituted materially and is experienced in a multitude of forms. The forms are undifferentiated solida definable as units. They are altered by movements. Movements are not yet processes, solida are not yet systems. Control by the environment.
2. Movement projects and equilibrium processes order the movements. The stimulus passes in each case through 4 stages. The elements strive to achieve an energetic equilibrium for themselves and for the system. The equilibrium system is the sum of the elements. Control by the environment.
3. The flow process distributes information (demand) and energy (supply, demanded products) and passes in each case through 4 bonding levels. The flow equilibrium system is more than the sum of its elements. It regulates itself. Control by feedback.
4. The conversion process converts energy into products and passes in each case through 8 stages (7 by overlapping). The process is based on division of labour (induction process). Each non-equilibrium system organises itself chronologically, structurally and spatially (reaction process). Control by internal hierarchy.
5. The hierarchical processes pass through 8 (by overlapping 7) hierarchical levels of the hierarchical system. Structural self-organisation. Control by specification hierarchy (demand and supply) and scalar hierarchy (order and obedience).
6. Universal process (here only mesocosmos): Material and spatial self-creation in the micro- and macrocosmos by autopoietic processes. Structural division in spheres.
All process stages in the 6 complexity levels are described by only 20 formulae.

4. Emergence: We describe as emergence the transition of the processes and systems of lower level of complexity to those of the next higher level of complexity. 4 different operations are necessary ("emergence code';): 1) Bundling: The processes are arranged in coordinate systems; accumulation of these coordinate systems. 2) Alignment: The bundled processes have to take their place in a new whole. This can be depicted by a new comprehensive (1st rank) system of coordinates, the quadrants contain the partial processes (2nd rank coordinate systems); 3) Interlacement: The coordinate systems have to be inverted; 4) Folding: The coordinate systems are resolved, the outlines of the new process appear. The lower part is folded behind the upper part by means of a horizontal hinge.
Dokument1.pdf contains the chapters "Preface", "Introduction", "Simple movements", "Equilibrum systems" (pp. 1-68), Dokument2.pdf contains the chapter "Flow process" (pp.69-118), Dokument3.pdf contains the chapter "Conversion process" (pp. 119-201), Dokument4.pdf contains the chapters "Hierachy process", "Autopoietic process" (pp. 202-286), Dokument5.pdf contains emergence, epilogue, references, notes on the figures and the glosaary (pp. 287-347).
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